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They argued that this would also take some pressure off the new Spanish government. With the English rule, there had been a push by St uart for the separation of the Creeks and Seminoles. With McGillivray in charge, the push was back to keeping them as one unit, the Creek Confederacy Fairbanks Overall, the Indians were in shock at the idea of the English leaving and the Spanish once again taking over. The majority supported the English, despite attempts to make friends with the Spanish in Havana as the English had better trade. There was no land exchange, but the Indians agreed to help the Spanish in the struggle against the Americans.

In , the Creeks and the Seminol es mainly occupied two principal areas: the Tallahassee Red Hills and the Alachua prairie.

There is little known about the groups living on the Apalachicola River. Keeping the Seminoles and Creeks closer to the Georgia border was part of McGillivrays plan to draw them closer to the Creek Confederacy Fairbanks Zspedes wa s not completely oblivious to what was happening in Florida. He realized that the Seminoles were almost a separate entity and decided to make an address aimed at them separate from the Creeks. Only a handful of Creeks attended the meeting but the Georgia commissioners were willing to accept these signatures.

The treaty established peace be tween the United States citizens and the Native Americans, upholding th e line established by the Trea ty of Augusta in The Creeks not in attendance never acknowledged this meeting, which led to the outbreak of the Oconee War between the Creeks and the Ge orgians.

The Seminoles contributed to the attacks on Georgia Fairbanks Although the Seminoles were making strides towards their independence, they rema ined a part of the Creek Confederacy. In fact, in , the U. This and a visit in by Tecumseh, Shawnee warrior from Ohio, campaigning for a panIndian uprising Ethridge ; Wright , are thought to have been major factors in the outbreak of the Redstick War, a civil war among those Creeks who supported an uprising and those who did not.

The uprising produced a major migration of Upper Creeks into Florid a where they combined with the Seminole bands Fairbanks By this time, Bowles had become a major problem. Forbes lost much from the attacks on the Panton, Leslie, and Company by Bo wles. Forbes wanted satisfaction in the way of land for the debt which his company ha d incurred from the Creeks and Seminoles.

Benjamin Hawkins simply wanted to capture Bowles. After Hawkins meetings with the Creeks and the Seminoles, these native groups turned over Bowles to Hawkins. Forbes was repaid with the land acquired through the Forbes Purchase in Figure 2. The Native American land ceded consisted of a tr act between the Apalachicola and St. Marks Rivers, nearly 1.

The Creeks initially denied res ponsibility for those debts to Forbes and Panton, Leslie, and Company incurred by the Seminoles but later claimed that the Forbes Purchase cancelled out any debt that they had obtained Fairbanks ; Wright He described them as almost completely wandering hunters and fi shers not like the extensive settlements around Alachua.


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By , Seminole bands assumed virtually complete independence from the Lower and Upper Creek Confederation Fairbanks The division of the Seminoles in Florid a from the Lower Creek groups in Georgia and the trouble over the American-Spanish border conditions was the catalyst for the First Seminole War. Reports from U. The Negro Fort Figure 2. The Negro Fort, as it was called due to the escaped black slaves who fl ed there, was constructed by the British to supply those natives loyal to the British. It was built on Prospect Bluff along the Apalachicola River where Forbes had earlier es tablished a trading post, discussed further in Chapter 3 Griffin ; Poe Duncan Clinch was ordered to build Fort Scott Figure 2.

The Americans, looking for a reason to start the war, ordered the supplies for Fort Scott to be brought in from New Orleans, up the Apal achicola River. The thought was that if the convoy was fired upon, the Ameri cans would have an excuse to attack the Negro Fort and the Seminoles. It just so ha ppened that Clinch got to fire on the Negro Fort in July of The men at the fort were not trained in heavy artillery and were not fair opponents for Clinch. After a few rounds, Clinch had targeted the powder magazine PAGE 36 28 and fired a hot shot, a cannonba ll that had been placed in the fire to make it hot when it was loaded.

The cannonball hit its target and de stroyed the fort Poe The rest of the war was also not good for the Seminoles In , just south of St. Augustine the Treaty of Moultrie Creek was signed. The tr eaty ceded all Indian land claims in the whole territory of Florida ex cept for reservation lands, four along the Apalachicola River and two in central Florida. To the Seminoles confined to the central part of the state as well as those on the Apalachicola River, th e government would afford protection and money.

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They were guaranteed peaceable posse ssion of the reserve and allotted rations for one year. They were given an Indian agent, a school, and a gun and blacksmith. They also had to return any slaves or fugitives to the U. There was also a clause that gave the Seminoles hope of receiving more land, though unlikely Fairbanks From this point on, the Seminoles and the Creeks were separate entities. Although they had come from the same people, they fought for many years to be recognized not necessarily by the term Seminol e as a separate group from the Creeks.

By the s, the Spanish missions were destroyed and many of the origin al Florida Indians had died out or moved away. Early European conflicts caused so me Lower Creeks, or the Hitchiti speaking Creeks, to move into Florida increasing th e population of natives by about two-thirds.

The languages of these two groups Hitchiti and Muskogee were related but mutually unintelligible, Weisman The two groups stayed separate for some time but eventually were all considered Seminole. In order to understand better which native groups the Seminoles along the Apalachicola River derive from, I made a list of groups who were living in the area. It is also important to note if the groups were be ing referred to as Seminole and when that occurred.

Specifically, I reviewed sites al ong the Apalachicola River and parts of the lower Chattahoochee River within Florida, as rivers were a major highway system for Native American groups. This chapter lists so me of the historically-recorded towns in this area.

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In chapter 4, I ove rlay the archaeological data w ith the historically-recorded PAGE 38 30 information to try to confirm the locations of these sites. As names of people and places are often used interchangeabl y, there is some prerequisi te information needed. It is important to discuss the identity of the Creeks in order to begin to understand the identity of the Seminoles.

The English referred to th e same group of people as either Upper or Lower Creeks based on location.


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The division oc curs at a fork in the trading path from Charleston whose southern branch dropped off toward the Chattahoochee. More specifically, the division between Upper a nd Lower Creek was partly geographic and partly the result of an inte rnal political division Fos ter Prior to , the lower Chattahoochee River was occupied by indigenous Hitchiti speakers, the Lower Creeks. The Muskogee speakers, Upper Creeks, were probably from other areas Worth But none of them were called Creeks until much later, by the British.

They were called by their town name or their leaders name. This causes many problems in interpretation since the Apalachicola people lived on the lower Chattahoochee River, not what is todays Apalachicola River. PAGE 39 Figure 3. Swanton also adds that Seminole towns moved around frequently and often altered their names. This thesis does not deal with all recorded Creek towns, but specifically w ith towns along the lower Chattahoochee River in Florida, the Apalachicola River, and some surrounding areas.

I acquired much of the information from the works of Boyd a nd Fairbanks Augustine, as well as portions of the map Boyd Young presents a table of 20 Seminole sites which he has broken up into three distinct languages: Hitchiti, Yuchi, and Mu skogee Fairbanks I have referred to these sites in the sections below as Young labeled them, in th e vicinity of Fort Scott. Some of these towns might have been twenty miles or more from Fort Scott.

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To clarify, Fort Scott relocated by White et al is located on th e first high bluff encountered above the confluence of the F lint and Chattahoochee Rivers on the west bank of the Flint River Boyd Andrew Jackson and his army constructed the fort as a military outpost to restrain hostile Red Stick Cr eek Indians or those Indians defiant to the U. The use of the term Apalachicola ma y also cause some confusion. Fairbanks explains that the term means three things: 1. Aside from Fairbankss meanings, Apal achicola is also the name of the river in Florida that fl ows from the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers.

For all sites listed below from southernmost on the Apalachicola River north to the lower Chattahoochee River refer to table 3.

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Although Negro Fort was not a town, it served as a place where Native Americans resided even if for only a short time. Marks, Florida Poe as discussed in chapter 2. A trading post was established, by Forbes, on Prospect Bluff site of the future Fort Gadsden on the Apalachicola River at river mile The British built a fort there in which to hold supplies and support those Native Americans friendly to the British.

This is 10 miles above the forks.